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인삼(人參) Ginseng Radix

인삼(人參) Ginseng Radix의 화학성분


한약성분정보는 ‘운곡본초학 수재 한약재의 화학성분  2(김정훈 외, 도서출판 우석, 2016)’의 내용을 발췌 및 정리하여 게시하였습니다. 해당 한약재에 함유된 성분 중 이차대사산물(secondary metabolites)을 주요 골격으로 구분하여 제시하였습니다 (성분의 골격 분류 방법에는 다양한 의견이 존재함을 일러드립니다).

인삼(人參)류 한약재의 기원 및 유통상황, 한방효능, 형태특징, 감별요점 등은 여기를 참조바랍니다.


written by : Jung-Hoon Kim. Division of Pharmacology, Pusan National Univ.

 

 

1. 인삼(人參): 인삼(人參) Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.의 뿌리를 乾燥한 것

① Oleanane-type saponins: ginsenoside-Ro

② Protopanaxadiol-type saponins: ginsenoside Ra1~3, ginsenoside Rb11/2, ginsenoside Rc, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Rg3, quinguenoside R1~2, malonyl ginsenoside Rb1, malonyl ginsenoside Rc, malonyl ginsenoside Rd

인삼(人參) Ginseng Radix

③ Protopanaxatriol-type saponins: ginsenoside Re1, ginsenoside Rf, ginsenoside Rg11/2, ginsenoside Rh1, 20-glucoginsenoside Rf, notoginsenoside R1, notoginsenoside R4, pseudoginsenoside F11, pseudoginsenoside Rp1, pseudoginsenoside Rt1, chikusetsusaponin Ⅳ, chikusetsusaponin Ⅴa, 20-(S)-protopanaxadiol-3-[O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-β-D-glucopyranoside

인삼(人參) Ginseng Radix

인삼(人參) Ginseng Radix

④ Polyacetylenes: panaxynol, panaxydol, falcarinol, heptadec-1-ene-4,6-diyn-3,9-diol, panaxydol chlorohydrine, panaxytriol, acetyl panaxydol, (8E)-1,8-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,10-diol, ginsenoyen A~K

⑤ Volatile compounds: sesquiterpene, long chain saturated carboxylic acid, eicosenoic acid (anticancer, 2.37%)

⑥ Sesquiterpenes: α-/β-panasinsene, caryophyllene, β-farnesene, α-/β-neoclovene, α-/β-humulene, α-/β-/γ-selinene, selina-4(14),7(11)-diene, caryophyllene alcohol, bicyclogermacrene, α-/β-guaiene, α-cubebene, β-patchoulene, eremophilene, α-/β-/γ-elemene, β-bisabolene, α-aromadendrene α-/β-santalene, α-/β-cadinene, β-maaliene, mayurone, ledol, panasinsanol A/B, ginsenol, spathulenol, 4β,10α-aromadendranediol, neointermedeol

⑦ Organic acids: citric acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, tartaric acid

⑧ Phenolic acids: salicylic acid, vanillic acid

⑨ Fatty acids: oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitin, linolein, α-/γ-dipalmitin

⑩ Steroids: β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol-3-(6-linoleoyl)-glucopyranoside, β-sitosterol-3-(6-palmitoyl)-glucopyranoside, β-sitosterol-3-(6-palmitoleoyl)-glucopyranoside, β-sitosterol-3-(6-stearoyl)-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-(6-linoleoyl)-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-(6-palmitoyl)-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-(6-palmitoleoyl)-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-(6-stearoyl)-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-(6-oleoyl)-glucopyranoside

Alkaloids: N9-formyl harman, ethyl-β-carboline-1-carboxylate, peroloyrine, choline

Phenolic acids: p-hydroxy cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, azelaic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid

Lignans: gomisin A, gomisin N

⑭ Flavonoids: kaempferol, trifolin, panasenoside

*紅蔘

① Triterpene saponins: ginsenoside Ro, ginsenoside Ra1~3, ginsenoside Rb1~3, ginsenoside Rc, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rf, ginsenoside Rg1/2, ginsenoside Rh1, ginsenoside Rs1/2, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg2, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2, 20(S)-ginsenoside R4, 20-glucoginsenoside Rf, quinguenoside Rg1, notoginsenoside R1, notoginsenoside R4, 20(R)-protopanaxatriol

② Volatile compounds: β-/γ-/δ-elemene, α-/β-/γ-gudunene, trans-β-farnesene, α-/β-/γ-guaiene, β-maaliene, β-selinene, ledol, widdrol, 2,6-ditertbutyl hydroquinone, γ-patchoulene, alloaromadendrene, α-humulene, α-santalol, α-muurolene, 2,6-ditertbutyl-4-methylphenol, 5-methoxybenzofuran, α-curcumene, p-tertbutyl anisole, piperonal

 

 


1진세노시드 Rg1(C42H72O14 : 801.01) 0.10% 이상 및 진세노시드 Rb1(C54H92O23 : 1109.29) 0.20% 이상을 함유 [KP 11]

1ginsenoside Rg1(人参皂苷Rg1, C42H72O14)과 ginsenoside Re(人参皂苷Re, C48H82O18)의 총량을 0.30% 이상, ginsenoside Rb1(人参皂苷Rb1, C54H92O23)을 0.20% 이상 함유. 음편에서는 ginsenoside Rg1(人参皂苷Rg1, C42H72O14)과 ginsenoside Re(人参皂苷Re, C48H82O18)의 총량을 0.27% 이상, ginsenoside Rb1(人参皂苷Rb1, C54H92O23)을 0.18% 이상 함유 [CP 2015]

1ginsenoside(ギンセノシド) Rg1(C42H72O14: 801.01)을 0.10% 이상 및 ginsenoside(ギンセノシド) Rb1(C54H92O23: 1109.29)을 0.20% 이상 함유 [JP 17]

1ginsenoside Rg1과 ginsenoside Re의 합 0.30% 이상, ginsenoside Rb1 0.20% 이상 함유 [THP II]

1ginsenoside Rb1(인삼조감人參皂苷Rb1. C54H92O23)을 0.20% 이상, ginsenoside Re(인삼조감人參皂苷Re. C48H82O18)와 ginsenoside Rg1(인삼조감人參皂苷Rg1. C42H72O14)의 총량을 0.19% 이상 함유 [HKCMMS 1]

1긴쎄노지드 Rb1(C54H92O23)가 0.4%이상 함유 [DP VII]